This Day In History: June 23

Born this day in 1948 was Clarence Thomas~
associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1991, whose appointment to replace Thurgood Marshall (the court’s first African American justice) gave the court a conservative cast.
1314~
began the Battle of Bannockburn, a decisive engagement in Scottish history whereby the Scots defeated the English, regained their independence, and established Robert the Bruce as Robert I.
1961~
The Antarctic Treaty was enacted, reserving the entire continent for free and nonpolitical scientific investigation.
1940~
Sprinter Wilma Rudolph, the first American woman to win three track-and-field gold medals in a single Olympics, was born.
1925~
An expedition under A.H. MacCarthy and H.F. Lambert became the first to reach the summit of Mount Logan, the second highest mountain in North America.
1865~
The Cherokee chief and Confederate general Stand Watie surrendered at the close of the American Civil War—one of the last Confederate commanders to do so.
1817~
Popular English actor John Philip Kemble retired after his last performance, in which he played Coriolanus.
1298~
German King Adolf of Nassau was deposed in favour of Albert I.

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